Oligomenorrhea generally refers to infrequent menstruation. More strictly, it is menstrual periods occurring at intervals of greater than 35 days, with only four to nine periods in a year. Also, menstrual periods should have been regularly established previously before the development of infrequent flow and often (but not always) involves irregular intervals. In contrast to "irregular cycles", the interval between one cycle and the next may still be consistent, but can still be regarded as "irregular" compared to the cycle length of a female without oligomenorrhea. 

Oligomenorrhea can be a result of prolactinomas (adenomas of the anterior pituitary). It may also be caused by thyrotoxicosis, hormonal changes in perimenopause, Prader–Willi syndrome, and Graves disease. Oligomenorrhea can be also an important symptom manifesting in several medical conditions. 

Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are also likely to suffer from oligomenorrhea. PCOS is a condition in which excessive androgens (male sex hormones) are released by the ovaries. Women with PCOS show menstrual irregularities that range from oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea, to very heavy, irregular periods. The condition affects about 6% of premenopausal women and is related to excess androgen production. Eating disorders can also result in oligomenorrhea. 

Therapy of oligomenorrhea depends on the cause. In adolescents and women near menopause, oligomenorrhoea usually needs no therapy. For some sports women, changes in training schedules and eating habits can be enough to return the woman to a periodic menstrual cycle. Other women, including those with polycystic ovary syndrome, are treated with hormones.

Associated diseases 


Negligence to treat menstrual bleeding cessation can lead to several complications-especially in PCO patients- that include:

  • low fertility 
  • lowering bone density
  • endometrial 
  • breast cancer
  • coronary 
  • brain artery disease
  • diabetes
  • hirsutism
  • acnea

Risk factors 

Because women suffering from olligomenhorea are only experiencing a period a few times a year, their body is also ovulating less which affect woman's ability to get pregnant. Oligomenorrhea contributing to chronic anovulation and infertility are the most frequent conditions observed. If ovulation does not take place then of course, pregnancy becomes impossible.

Healthy nutrition and less energetic training plans for female athletes will usually prevent oligomenorrhoea. When oligomenorrhoea is caused by hormonal reasons, however, it is not preventable, but is usually treatable.

Dietary Habits

Changes in food habits can cause inadequate intake of calories, micronutrients, unsaturated fat, phytestrogens and fiber as well as increasing environmental toxins. These factors are speculated not only to influence the present lifestyle, but also to induce gynecologic disorders such as oligomenorrhea. 

Avicenna traditional medicine

Sesamum indicum L. (the medicinal herbs) is a well-known medication in the Avicenna traditional medicine to induce menstrual bleeding in women with oligomenorrhea.


Available treatments for this disease are mostly hormonal drugs, such as contraceptive pills to regulate hormone inbalance. Unfortunately, contraceptive pills are not free from side effects. The most common side-effects in women taking the hormonal drugs include headache, mood changes, gastrointestinal disturbances, and breast pain. These drugs are also responsible for more serious adverse effects like breast cancer. Menstruation may be adjusted with a change in hormonal contraception use or progestin.

Surgical therapy 


Treatment procedures of oligomenorrhea depends on its cause. Fertility can be resumed by gonadotropin injections to stimulate follicle maturation and ovulation. If it is not sufficient for spontaneous conception IVF-ICSI should be done 

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