Bilateral oophorectomy, partial oophorectomy
Partial oophorectomy or ovariotomy is a term sometimes used to describe a variety of surgeries such as ovarian cyst removal or resection of parts of the ovaries. This kind of surgery is fertility-preserving, although ovarian failure may be relatively frequent. Most of the long-term risks and consequences of oophorectomy are not or only partially present with partial oophorectomy.
In humans, oophorectomy is most often performed because of diseases such as ovarian cysts or cancer; as prophylaxis to reduce the chances of developing ovarian cancer or breast cancer; or in conjunction with hysterectomy (removal of the uterus).
Laparotomic adnexal surgeries are associated with a high rate of adhesive small bowel obstructions. Oophorectomy has serious long-term consequences stemming mostly from the hormonal effects of the surgery and extending well beyond menopause. The reported risks and adverse effects include premature death, cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment or dementia, parkinsonism, osteoporosis and bone fractures, decline in psychological wellbeing and decline in sexual function. Hormone replacement therapy does not always reduce the adverse effects.
Women who have had bilateral oophorectomy surgeries lose most of their ability to produce the hormones estrogen and progesterone, and lose about half of their ability to produce testosterone, and subsequently enter what is known as "surgical menopause" (as opposed to normal menopause, which occurs naturally in women as part of the aging process). In natural menopause the ovaries generally continue to produce low levels of hormones, especially androgens, long after menopause, which may explain why surgical menopause is generally accompanied by a more sudden and severe onset of symptoms than natural menopause, symptoms that may continue until the natural age of menopause. These symptoms are commonly addressed through hormone therapy, utilizing various forms of estrogen, testosterone, progesterone or a combination.
The time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and the woman is no longer able to have children.
Two very fine tubes that transport sperm toward the egg, and allow passage of the fertilized egg back to the uterus for implantation.
The ovum-producing organs of the internal female reproductive system
A group of granulosa cells that support the oocyte in an antral follicle.
A female germ cell involved in reproduction.
The primary female sex hormone responsible for the development and regulation of the female reproductive system and secondary sex characteristics.
Steroid hormone produced primarily in the testes of the male; responsible for the development of secondary sex characteristics in the male.
The process of the maturation of the female gametes through the meiotic division.
A pain that occurs between the chest and pelvic regions.
The absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age.
A medical condition whose main symptom is low sexual desire.
Pain in the area of the pelvis, that lasts more than six months.
Problems with thought processes.
A condition where the feces are hardened because of excess water removal in the colon.
The absence of sexual appetite.
A chronic condition characterized by low bone mass and increased risk of fracture.
The feel of pain during defecation.
Process by which a woman donates eggs for purposes of assisted reproduction or biomedical research.
A micromanipulative fertilization technique in which a single sperm is injected directly into an egg.
A process in which an egg is fertilised by sperm outside the body: in vitro. Own or donated gametes may be used.
The embryo is gestated in a third party's (surrogate) uterus.