Chest pain refers to a pain is felt anywhere in the chest area from the level of shoulders to the bottom of ribs, ranging from a sharp stab to a dull ache. The condition is one of the most frequent patient’s complaints driving patients to a physician’s practice or to the hospital’s emergency department.
Chest pain could result from variety of causes ranging from relatively benign muscular pain to catastrophic emergencies. Cardiopulmonary conditions are relatively common and most feared due to their life threatening potential. Atypical presentations and uncommon conditions do exist and can pose a diagnostic challenge.
Therefore, accurate and fast risk stratification is paramount in the acute management of these patients, mainly to identify those patients with immediate risk of complications. This group of patients is challenging to discriminate, as there is a variety of clinical manifestations.
Treatment options vary depending on the underlying cause of chest pain, including medication or surgery.
Testicular cancer is cancer that develops in the testicles, a part of the male reproductive system.
It is not very common for testicular cancer to spread to other organs, apart from the lungs. If it has, however, the following symptoms may be present:
Premature ovarian failure
Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a primary ovarian defect characterized by absent menarche (primary amenorrhea) or premature depletion of ovarian follicles before the age of 40 years (secondary amenorrhea).
POF is characterized by low levels of gonadal hormones (estrogens and inhibins) and high levels of gonadotropins (luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)). Estrogen has a multitude of biological effects that may account for its apparent cardiovascular protection. Thus, decreased estrogen might increase risk of heart disease that could be a cause of chest pain.