Depression is a quite sever mood disorder characterized by chronic low mood accompanied by low self-esteem, pessimism, loss of interest in activities, that were once enjoyable. Depressed person often overreact, has problems with concentration, establishes and maintains relations with great difficulty or has problems with making decisions. Depression may be also connected with appetite changes, difficulties with sleeping (insomnia or excessive sleeping), reduced energy and increased pain and aches feelings. 

There are few people that wouldn’t feel sad or even depressed occasionally while facing difficult life situations. In difference of clinical depression, these feelings do not carry through for a long time and pass within a few days. On the other hand, clinical depression is a long lasting mood disorder which interferes with daily life and causes pain to the one who’s suffering from it and to those who care about depressed person. The clinical depression disallows a normal quality of life affecting all its aspects.

Depression affect many aspects of the body starting with lower physical condition, through metabolism changes and immunity debilitation to reproductive dysfunctions. Depression may be induced psychically by social problems or it may have origin in some body dysfunctions. Complicated diseases connected with great deal of stress may induce permanent hormonal changes in the body leading to depression. 

Polycystic ovary syndrome, Anovulation, Vaginismus, Adenomyosis, Endometriosis

All these diseases are related with hormonal imbalance within the female body, specifically the hormonal imbalance within the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis. This can lead to closely related conditions such as hyperandogenimia (elevated levels of androgens), obesity and menstrual irregularities and even mood dysfunctions such as depression. Some of the disorders mentioned above (endometriosis, adenomyosis) are also often connected with painful feeling which puts a female body under a stress conditions which can increase the hormonal alterations within the body resulting in depression or intensifying the depressive feelings. 

Thyroid disorders

Primary thyroid disorders, specifically hyperthyroidism (overproduction of the hormone thyroxine) leading to thyrotoxicosis (too high levels of circulating hormone thyroxin) may be accompanied by neuropsychiatric manifestations such as depression. Thyroid glands are part of so called hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. This axis represents complex interactions between thyroid glands and the brain. If those interactions are changed by malfunction of thyroid glands it may cause even behavioural changes such as depression in case of hyperthyroidism. The hormonal imbalance caused by malfunction of thyroid glands is affecting the function of hypothalamus which is communicating with “emotional” centre, the limbic system.

Erectile dysfunction

The mood disorders in man may also lead to decreased fertility through the induction of some sexual disorders (e.g. erectile dysfunction) and through the negative impact on semen quality caused by hormonal imbalance. Depression may appear as a result of repeated failure to accomplish the sexual intercourse and to satisfy the women. Depression with its centre in amygdala may be the cause of serotonin disturbances (a neurotransmitter; chemical substance inducing reaction between neurones). These changes in serotonin production and function may even amplify the effects lowering the sexual desire. There has been also observed a relation between serotonin receptors and sexual disorders (erectile dysfunction) which may be genetically predisposed. 

Anorexia nervosa

Anorexia nervosa, is an eating disorder characterized by a low weight, fear of gaining weight and food restriction. As in case of any eating disorder, the function of whole body is greatly affected. Between many other symptoms of anorexia, depression may appear as a consecutive disorder due to constant worry about the weight and due to the fear of gaining weight. On the other hand, anorexia may appear also as a consequence of hormonal changes due to alimentary deficiency. For example, zinc deficiency is associated with higher levels of anxiety and may lead to depression.

XX male syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome

Changes in sex chromosome within man induce some reproduction related problems, such as lower fertility or sterility, lower libido, small gonads, hormonal changes and so on. These problems may be related with difficulties in social interactions or affect the emotional centre within the brain (called limbic system) through effect of hormonal imbalance. This may result also in psychic disorders such as depression.

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XX male syndrome ―sourced from Wikipedia licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0
Klinefelter syndrome and other sex chromosomal aneuploidies ―by Visootsak and Graham licensed under CC BY 2.0
Vaginismus ―sourced from Wikipedia licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0
Amygdala ―sourced from Wikipedia licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0
Limbic system ―sourced from Wikipedia licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0
The Role of the Amygdala in Anxiety Disorders ―by Forster et al. licensed under CC BY 3.0
The Link between Thyroid Function and Depression ―by Hage and Azar licensed under CC BY 3.0
Zinc supplementation in the treatment of anorexia nervosa ―by Associação Brasileira de Nutrologia licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0
Depression (mood) ―sourced from Wikipedia licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0
Depressive Disorders ―sourced from Boundless licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0
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