A person suffering from diarrhea is the one that undergoes three or more passages of fluid stools in one day. There are many causes leading to diarrhea such as bacterial or viral infection, the presence of parasites in the gastrointestinal tract, malnutrition, ingestion of poisons, drug consumption and so on. In the relation to reproductive system disorders, diarrhea is often a sign of endometriosis and cancerous diseases such as testicular cancer. Depending on the diarrhea time of lasting, it is differentiated into acute diarrhea which is lasting no more than 14 days and chronic diarrhea which is lasting more than two weeks. Diarrhea is often connected with another symptom called dysmenorrheal (painful menstruation). It should be mentioned that diarrhea is one of the relatively common signs of gastrointestinal symptoms connected with menstruation. It is suspected that up to 30 % of women may experience gastrointestinal symptoms during the time of menstruation.

Diarrhea may be associated with several diseases including:

Endometriosis

Endometriosis is characterized as the growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterus. The endometrial tissue reaches the pelvic cavity (bottom part of abdominal cavity) through the fallopian tubes. Most frequently affected organs are the close ones such as pelvic peritoneum, uterosacral ligaments and ovaries. When the endometrial tissue does not grow on the genital tract organs, it is called as extra-genital endometriosis. This includes the growth of endometrial tissue on intestines (most frequently the large intestine laying closer to genital tract) which happen to be affected as well since they are located quiet near the female genital tract. Among other things, higher prostaglandin levels are connected with endometriosis. Prostaglandins are genital hormones responsible for contractions of uterus but may also cause the contraction of the intestinal smooth muscle layer leading to diarrhea.

Cancerous diseases (testicular cancer, prostate cancer)

Diarrhea as a symptom of a cancer may happen due to several reasons. One reason of diarrhea as symptom of person suffering from cancer may be the cancer treatment. The cancer treatment usually affects the immunity system which becomes weakened. Therefore, a person under cancer treatment is more predisposed to infectious diseases which may also lead to infection of gastrointestinal tract and consecutive diarrhea. If the radiation treatment is applied in the abdominal area, it is also often connected with diarrhea, since the radiation affects all tissue in the area of application. Diarrhea can appear even before the cancer treatment starts. The diagnosis of cancer is naturally connected with great deal of stress on the part of patient. Stressful conditions often cause diarrhea because of the body’s adaptation leading to hormonal and metabolic changes resulting also in gastrointestinal disorders. A body under chronic stress condition and depression adapts by increased production of “stress” hormones in the adrenal gland. As an example of typical “stress” hormone can serve cortisol which belongs to glucocorticoids and impairs the immunity reaction. Due to worsened immunity the gastrointestinal tract is more easily influenced by pathogens which can lead to diarrhea. Decreased immunity during cancerous disease can be also caused by the spreading of the cancer into the bone marrow which regulates the function of immunity system. As in the cases antecedent cases, worsened immunity can lead to diarrhea.

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Sources

Diarrhea ―sourced from Wikipedia licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0
Cortisol ―sourced from Wikipedia licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0
Bowel endometriosis: a benign disease? ―by Bassi et al. licensed under CC BY 4.0
Blood Diseases and Disorders ―sourced from Lumen licensed under CC BY 4.0
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