Gynecomastia is a common disorder of the endocrine system in which there is a non-cancerous increase in the size of male breast tissue (Pic. 1). Most adolescent boys, up to 70%, have some breast development during puberty. Newborn and adolescent males often experience temporary gynecomastia due to the influence of maternal hormones and hormonal changes during puberty, respectively.

The condition occurs naturally due to:

A child receiving an excess of female hormones from the mother during gestation can cause excess growth to occur in adolescence and later in life. However for this to occur, it is supposed that the mother must have a hormonal imbalance which leads back to a likelihood of environmental poisoning. Even infant formulas can contain agricultural chemical residues that mimic oestrogens and hormones.

Environmental poisoning is a root cause of many health problems as our world is awash in agricultural and industrial chemicals. In large doses, these chemicals may kill, but man made chemical residues contaminate most of our foods and they mimic oestrogens and hormones causing birth defects and growth disorders.

Obesity is at the root of so many health disorders and man boobs are another factor that may be compounded by other causes. Here the body is expanding and accumulating fat where it can and the breasts are a good location as women’s breasts often grow as their body weight increases.

Body-builders commonly develop proportionally larger breasts due to the use of anabolic steroids which can lead to an excess of testosterone which is converted into oestrogens.

One can say that man boobs are caused by an imbalance of oestrogens and hormones or the body tissue responsiveness to them, this is only part of the equation and a symptom of an unhealthy lifestyle.

The development of gynecomastia is usually associated with benign pubertal changes; in adolescent boys, the condition is often a source of psychological distress. However, 75% of pubertal gynecomastia cases resolve within two years of onset without treatment. In rare cases, gynecomastia has been known to occur in association with certain disease states.

Oestrogen suppressing drugs are commonly used to treat man boobs. An alternative to drugs is surgery, either removing the gland or liposuction.

Klinefelter syndrome, Hypogonadism

Primary hypogonadism (indicating an intrinsic problem with the testes in males) leads to decreased testosterone synthesis and increased conversion of testosterone to estradiol potentially leading to a gynecomastic appearance. Klinefelter syndrome is a notable example of a disorder that causes hypogonadism, gynecomastia, and has a higher risk of breast cancer in males (20-50 times higher than males without the disorder). Central hypogonadism (indicating a problem with the brain) leads to decreased production and release of luteinizing hormone (LH) (a stimulatory signal for endogenous steroid hormone synthesis) which leads to decreased production of testosterone and estradiol in the testes.


Hyperprolactinaemia is the presence of abnormally high levels of prolactin in the blood. In men, the prolactin behavior can affect the adrenal function, gynecomastia, libido decreasing and sexual impotence and some other actions in prostate, seminal vesicles and testicles.


Azoospermia is the medical condition of a man when sperm count is equal or less then 15 million/ml in hissemen. Since the testicle is not functioning well in non-obstructive azoospermia (sperm production is impaired),level of testosterone (which is made primarily by the testis) is often low. Low testosterone levels in men can lead to enlarged brests in male.

Testicular cancer

Leydig cell tumour, (testicular) interstitial cell tumour, is a member of the sex cord-stromal tumour group of ovarian and testicular cancers. The majority of Leydig cell tumors are found in men, usually at 5–10 years of age or in middle adulthood (30–60 years). Children typically present with precocious puberty. Due to excess testosterone secreted by the tumour. Additional signs include acne and hirsutism, voice deepening and an increase in musculature. Serum testosterone level is high. In men testicular swelling is the most common presenting feature, though gynecomastia may be the first symptom in some patients.

XX male syndrome

XX male syndrome is a rare sex chromosomal disorder. Individuals with this condition sometimes have feminine characteristics, with varying degrees of gynecomastia but with no intra-abdominal Müllerian tissue (the source of the female reproductive organs).

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XX male syndrome ―sourced from Wikipedia licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0
Azoospermia ―sourced from Wikipedia licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0
Gynecomastia ―sourced from Health-enz licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0
Gynecomastia ―sourced from Wikipedia licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0
Man boobs, 'moobs' or enlarged male mammary glands ―sourced from Progesterone therapy licensed under CC BY 3.0
Leydig cell tumour ―sourced from Wikipedia licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0
XX male syndrome ―sourced from Fertilitypedia licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0
Gynecomastia ―by unknown licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0
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