Leukocytosis is white cells (the leukocyte count) above the normal range in the blood. It is frequently a sign of an inflammatory response, most commonly the result of infection, but may also occur following certain parasitic infections or bone tumors as well as leukemia. It may also occur after strenuous exercise, convulsions such as epilepsy, emotional stress, pregnancy and labor, anesthesia, and epinephrine administration.

The mechanism that causes leukocytosis can be of several forms: an increased release of leukocytes from bone marrow storage pools, decreased margination of leukocytes onto vessel walls, decreased extravasation of leukocytes from the vessels into tissues, or an increase in number of precursor cells in the marrow. Certain medications, including corticosteroids, lithium and beta agonists, may cause leukocytosis.

An extreme form of leukocytosis, in which the WBC (white blood cell) count exceeds 100,000/µL, is leukostasis. In this form there are so many WBCs that clumps of them block blood flow. This leads to ischemic problems including transient ischemic attack and stroke.

Leukocytosis may be associated with several diseases including: 

Pyosalpinx

A pyosalpinx is one of the features of pelvic inflammatory disease and refers to the presence of pus in one of the fallopian tubes occurring as a consequence of an infection in the reproductive tract. The symptoms of pyosalpinx are pain in the lower abdomen, fever, and leukocytosis.

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Sources

PYOSALPINX ―sourced from Fertilitypedia licensed under CC BY- SA 4.0
Leukocytosis ―sourced from Wikipedia licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0
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