Dysuria is characterized by pain, discomfort, or burning when urinating and is more common in women than in men. One of the leading causes of painful urination are urinary tract infections (such as genital herpes or chlamydia).
Dysuria causes can be split into four categories. These include a large number of conditions.
1. Drugs and irritants
- chemical Irritants, e.g., soaps, tampons, toilet paper
- prostate cancer (male)
3. Urinary Tract
- urinary tract infections
- chlamydia infection
- a bacterial infection
- herpes genitalis (or genital herpes)
- diverticulitis - an infection of the diverticulum
- hypotension - the disease or disorder of abnormally low blood pressure
- mass in the abdomen
- reactive arthritis - an autoimmune condition that develops in response to an infection in another part of the body (cross-reactivity)
Pelvic Inflammatory disease
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an inflammation of the uterus, fallopian tubes and/or the ovaries. PID can be asymptomatic or present with acute symptoms.
Symptoms include fever, lower abdominal pain, unusual discharge, burning with urination, irregular menstrual bleeding and painful intercourse. Frequent urination and increased urgency may suggest interstitial cystitis (inflammation centred in bladder rather than prostate).
Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy. Most women present with abnormal vaginal bleeding. Other symptoms include pain with urination or sexual intercourse, or pelvic pain. Endometrial cancer occurs most commonly after menopause.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common urological disorder in men. Its prevalence increases with age.
Symptoms are abdominal pain, a continuous feeling of a full bladder, frequent urination, acute urinary retention (inability to urinate), pain during urination (dysuria), problems starting urination (urinary hesitancy), slow urine flow, starting and stopping (urinary intermittence), and nocturia.
Uterine fibroids are tumors of the smooth muscle cells found in the human uterus. Complications can arise from the location of the fibroids. They range from intermittent bleedings to continuous bleedings over several weeks, from single pain episodes to severe pain, from dysuria and constipation to chronic bladder and bowel spasms.
Orchitis is inflammation of the testes.It can also involve swelling, heavy pains and frequent infection, and is more rarely known as didymitis. Orchitis can be related to epididymitis infection that has spread to the testicles (then called "epididymo-orchitis"), sometimes caused by the sexually transmitted diseases chlamydia. As mentioned above, chlamydia causes painful urination.
Menopause is a normal event in a woman's life and occurs when the menstrual cycle stops permanently. Symptoms of menopause includes urinary problems such as urinary tract infections, frequent urination or incontinence.
Prostatitis is an inflammation of the prostate which can be caused by bacteria.
Acute prostatitis is relatively easy to diagnose because it presents the general infection symptoms which may include: fever, chills, groin and lower back pain, issues during urination, and general body aches. The prostate is usually enlarged.