In patients with ED, inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) surgery is regarded as the gold standard treatment in medically refractory cases or where its conservative treatment options are contraindicated. 
There are two primary types of penile prosthesis: noninflatable, semirigid devices and inflatable devices. Noninflatable, semirigid devices consist of rodsim planted into the erection chambers of the penis and can be bent into position as needed for sexual penetration. With this type of implant the penis is always semi-rigid and therefore may be difficult to conceal.
Hydraulic, inflatable prosthesis also exist and were first described in 1973 by BrantleyScott et al. These saline-filled devices consist of inflatable cylinders placedin the erection chambers of the penis, a pump placed in the scrotum for patient-activated inflation/deflation, and a reservoir placed in the abdomen which stores the fluid. The device is inflated by squeezing the pump several times to transfer fluid from the reservoir to the chambers in the penis. After successful sexual relations, the pump can be deactivated to return the penis to a flaccid condition. Almost all implanted penile prosthesis devices perform satisfactorily for a decade or more before needing replacement.

Despite improvements in surgical technique and implanted materials, IPP surgery retains a substantial complication rate.

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