Self therapy does not exist.
Orchiopexy is a surgery to move an undescended (cryptorchid) testicle (Pic. 1) into the scrotum and permanently fix it there. Orchiopexy typically also describes the surgery used to resolve testicular torsion (Pic. 2). Orchiopexy is a necessary procedure for the treatment of a common problem in the pediatric population.
It is traditionally performed through an inguinal procedure, with a second incision made in the scrotum to set the testicle. Surgical treatment via an inguinal incision is the main treatment option for palpable testicles, but can also be employed for the evaluation and treatment of non-palpable testis (a testis that cannot be felt and may be intraabdominal or absent). In this situation, however, surgical exploration can often require large incisions and extensive dissections, especially in bilateral cases.
Undescended testicle, or cryptorchidism, is one of the most common congenital urological diseases. The prevalence of cryptorchidism at birth varies from 2 to 5%, and the testes mostly descend during the first 6 months of life. The undescended testicle (cryptorchidism) may be intra-abdominal or what is termed cannilicular in nature. Cannilicular describes those testicles along the normal pathway of descent that are both outside of the abdominal cavity, but not in the scrotum. This anomaly is associated with an increased risk of testicular cancer and infertility as well as hernia, testicular torsion, and psychological distress. A higher risk of infertility and testicular malignancy associated with failure of testicular descent can be reduced significantly by correction of cryptorchidism. Currently, orchiopexy is recommended between 6 and 12–18 months. However, the optimal timing of surgical intervention is still widely debated. Numerous studied showed that the average age of boys with undescended testis (UDT) at the time of surgery is still above the recommended age. A major concern with regard to UDT is potential impaired fertility. Most current studies have documented satisfactory testicular growth as long as orchiopexy was performed before two years of age.
Orchiopexy can also be performed to resolve a testicular torsion. Testicular torsion occurs when the spermatic cord (from which the testicle is suspended) twists, cutting off the testicle's blood supply. The most common symptom in children is rapid onset of severe testicular pain. The testicle may also be higher than usual and vomiting may occur. Testicular torsion is a surgical emergency that requires immediate intervention to restore the flow of blood. If treated either manually or surgically within six hours, there is a high chance (approx. 90%) of saving the testicle. At 12 hours the rate decreases to 50%; at 24 hours it drops to 10%, and after 24 hours the ability to save the testicle approaches 0. Common treatment for children is surgically sewing the testicle to the scrotum (orchiopexy) to prevent future recurrence.
Pharmacotherapy of cryptorchodism is a hormonal replacement therapy, which can be in some cases successful as a treatment of undescended testis (UT; Pic. 1) located in the inguinal canal (Pic. 2).
Testosterone is the hormone which causes the testes to descend from abdominal cavity into the scrotum, but after baby boys are born they no longer have the testosterone stimulating effect of gonadotropins (hormones from pituitary gland that regulates normal growth, sexual development, and reproductive function) coming from the placenta before birth. Since baby boys' sexual development comes to a complete standstill until the time of puberty, an undescended testicle may persist. The secretion of testosterone is controlled by gonatropins which are regulated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) (Pic. 3).
Two main drugs are used as a treatment of cryptorchidism, which have effect similar effect as these natural hormones.
Hormonal treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) may be initially administered for cryptorchidism because it should promote the testicular descent. The theoretical basis for its use is to stimulate the Leydig cells (cells in seminiferous tubules which produce testosterone) to produce testosterone, inducing inguinal–scrotal testicular descent.
1. Human chorionic gonadotropin
The most commonly used hormone therapy is human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). The hCG stimulates the production of gonadal steroid hormones by stimulating the Leydig cells to produce androgens (male hormones, especially testosterone). It is not known, how the androgens exactly work in the mechanism of action.
A series of hCG injections (10 injections over 5 weeks is common) is given and the status of the testis/testes is reassessed at the end.
Distally located testes in older boys have higher chance of descent than abdominal testes.
Patients with cryptorchidism have lower amount of germ cells. The effect of hCG can be induction of apoptosis (controlled cell death). With hCG treatment, patiens may not be able to compensate adequately the reduction of germ cells. In the future, this can lead to decreased volume of testicles and lower amount of sperms which can have negative impact on fertility.
2. Gonadotropin- releasing hormone
The gonadotropins are controlled by gonadotropin- releasing hormones (GnRH) secreted from hypothalamus. Agonist analogs of GnRH have similar mechanism of action and stimulate the release of the pituitary gonadotropins.
GnRH is approved for the tratment of cryptorchidism in Europe and it is used as a nasal spray.
Also GnRH therapy can suppress the number of germ cells due to induction of apoptosis. Better sperms counts have been reported in patients who underwent orchidopexy (surgical removal of undescended testicles).
The combination of both hormones is not effective.
Egg donation is the process by which a woman donates eggs for purposes of assisted reproduction or biomedical research. For assisted reproduction purposes, egg donation typically involves IVF technology, with the eggs being fertilized in the laboratory; more rarely, unfertilized eggs may be frozen and stored for later use. Egg donation is a third party reproduction as part of ART.
Egg donor may have several reasons for donate her eggs:
First step is choosing the egg donor by a recipient from the profiles on or clinic databases (or, in countries where donors are required to remain anonymous, they are chosen by the recipient's doctor based on recipient woman’s desired trait). This is due to the fact that all of the mentioned examinations are expensive and the agencies/clinics must first confirm that a match is possible or guaranteed before investing in the process.
Each egg donor is first referred to a psychologist who will evaluate if she is mentally prepared to undertake and complete the donation process. These evaluations are necessary to ensure that the donor is fully prepared and capable of completing the donation cycle in safe and success manner. The donor is then required to undergo a thorough medical examination, including a pelvic exam, blood tests to check hormone levels and to test for infectious diseases, Rh factor, blood type, and drugs and an ultrasound to examine her ovaries, uterus and other pelvic organs. A family history of approximately the past three generations is also required, meaning that adoptees are usually not accepted because of the lack of past health knowledge. Genetic testing is also usually done on donors to ensure that they do not carry mutations (e.g., cystic fibrosis) that could harm the resulting children; however, not all clinics automatically perform such testing and thus recipients must clarify with their clinics whether such testing will be done. During the process, which usually takes several months, the donor must abstain from alcohol, sexual intercourse, cigarettes, and drugs, both prescription and non-prescription.
Once the screening is complete and a legal contract signed, the donor will begin the donation cycle, which typically takes between three and six weeks. An egg retrieval procedure comprises both the egg donor's cycle and the recipient's cycle. Birth control pills are administered during the first few weeks of the egg donation process to synchronize the donor's cycle with her recipient's, followed by a series of injections which halt the normal functioning of the donor's ovaries. These injections may be self-administered on a daily basis for a period of one to three weeks. Next, FSH is given to the donor to stimulate egg production and increases the number of mature eggs produced by the ovaries. Throughout the cycle the donor is monitored often by a physician using blood tests and ultrasound exams to determine the donor's reaction to the hormones and the progress of follicle growth.
Once the doctor decides the follicles are mature, the doctor will establish the date and time for the egg retrieval procedure. Approximately 36 hours before retrieval, the donor must administer one last injection of hCG to ensure that her eggs are ready to be harvested. The egg retrieval itself is a minimally invasive surgical procedure lasting 20-30 minutes, performed under sedation (but sometimes without any). A small ultrasound-guided needle is inserted through the vagina to aspirate the follicles in both ovaries, which extracts the eggs. After resting in a recovery room for an hour or two, the donor is released. Most donors resume regular activities by the next day.
Laws by state
The legal status and compensation of egg donation has several models across states with examples:
During ICSI just one sperm is injected directly into the egg cytoplasm using a micromanipulative apparatus that transforms imperfect hand movements into fine and precise movements of micromanipulation tools.
Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) is an assisted reproductive technique (ART) initially developed by Dr. Gianpiero D. Palermo in 1993 to treat male infertility. It is most commonly used in conjunction with in vitro fertilization (IVF). Following IVF procedure, the physician places the fertilized egg into the female’s uterus for implantation. Sperm are obtained by the same methods as with IVF: either through masturbation, by using a collection condom, or by surgically removing sperm from a testicle through a small incision (MESA, TESE). The females are treated with fertility medications for approximately two weeks prior to oocyte retrieval to stimulate superovulation, where the ovaries produce multiple oocytes rather than the normal one oocyte. The oocytes are retrieved by either laparoscopy, or more commonly, transvaginal oocyte retrieval. In the latter procedure, the physician inserts a thin needle through the cervix, guided by a sonogram and pierces the vaginal wall and then the ovaries to extract several mature ova. Before the embryologist can inject the sperm into the oocyte, the sperm must be prepared by washing and exposing it to various chemicals to slow the sperm movement and prevent it from sticking to the injection plate. Also, the oocytes are treated with hyaluronidase to single out the oocyte ready for fertilization by the presence of the first polar body. Then, one prepared sperm is injected into an oocyte with a thin needle. Often, embryologists try to fertilize several eggs so they can implant more than one into the uterus and increase the chance of at least one successful pregnancy. This also allows them to save extra embryos, using cryopreservation, in case later IVF rounds are needed.
After the embryologist manually fertilizes the oocytes, they are incubated for sixteen to eighteen hours and develop into a pronucleate eggs (successfully fertilized eggs about to divide into an embryo). The egg then grows for one to five days in the laboratory before the physician places it in the female’s uterus for implantation.
The chance of fertilization increases dramatically with ICSI compared to simply mixing the oocytes and sperm in a Petri dish and waiting for fertilization to occur unaided (classical IVF procedure). Studies have shown that successful fertilizations occur 50% to 80% of the time. Since the introduction of ICSI, intrauterine insemination (IUI) has decreased in popularity by 80%.See full description of ICSI
In the last 30 years, genetic testing techniques have been developed to identify chromosomally normal embryos in vitro, thereby potentially increasing the proportion of successful cycles with elective single-embryo transfer, and minimizing twin-pregnancy complications and miscarriages. This testing is termed "pre-implantation genetic screening" (PGS), in contrast to pre-implantation genetic diagnosis PGD), in which testing is performed for specific genetic defects.
Today, PGS technologies have evolved to include screening of all 24 chromosomes (22 pairs of autosomes and the 2 sex chromosomes). Ongoing pregnancy rates of about 60% following single embryo transfer have been described in couples with a maternal age of 38 years whose embryos have undergone PGS. It has not, however, been definitively established that the cumulative delivery rates are better with PGS, although it has been argued that the reduction in miscarriage rates and maternal and neonatal complications due to multiple pregnancies justifies the expense of this technology.
Trends toward delayed childbearing have resulted in an increasing number of women of advanced maternal age seeking to become pregnant and in a consequent increase in demand for assisted reproductive technology, most commonly in-vitro fertilization (IVF). In such women, the proportion of aneuploid embryos can exceed 60%, with a risk of miscarriage of about 40%, potentially resulting in significant emotional and financial hardship for affected couples.
Indications for PGS
Commonly quoted indications for PGS include advanced maternal age, repeated implantation failure, recurrent miscarriage, severe male factor infertility, or subfertility (those who experience unrecognized embryonic losses and who are labelled clinically as infertile). It should be noted that the chances of selecting an euploid embryo mainly depend of the number of embryos produced during the procedure. When it is suspected that the couple has a major chromosomal risk due to advanced maternal age or severe male factors, it is mandatory to inform them of the low chance of achieving a pregnancy with the PGS procedure, unless the couple produces many embryos that provide one or two euploid embryos apt for transfer.
Women at an advanced age have a greater chance of having aneuploid pregnancies because they have increased rates of producing aneuploid oocytes. Oocytes are always the same age as the woman. However, in males, sperm are produced every 65-75 days. Therefore, it might be said that sperm are not the same age as the male. The prolonged arrest of oocytes at meiotic prophase I mainly contributes to aneuploidy due to the decline in competence of the cytoplasm of the oocyte. The number and distribution of chiasmata during prophase I as the weak centromeric cohesion may be the main factor that predisposes aneuploidy that is inherent to age. In fact, the principal cause of oocyte aneuploidy is the precocious separation of sister chromatids rather than classic non-disjunction. In the male, the expected sperm aneuploidy rate is between 0.5 and 1% because the sperm is not the age of the male, but if the sperm is not ejaculated for prolonged periods, it could have a high rate of DNA fragmentation, which is also responsible for abnormal fertilization. Competent oocytes from young women can repair the DNA fragmentation of the sperm, but the oocytes from older women cannot. Therefore, women of advanced age have higher probabilities of having abnormal pregnancies that might end in miscarriage or in a malformed newborn. Most of these embryos are lost during pre or post implantation stages, while a minority come to term. That is why the possibility of miscarriage also increases with the age of the woman (Tab. 1).
Usually, RPL is defined as two or more consecutive pregnancies lost before 20 weeks of gestation. Different cytogenetic studies of miscarriages in the first trimester of pregnancy show that aneuploidy rates varied between 50% and 80%. Additionally, it has been documented that couples with RPL produce more aneuploid embryos than those who have not had RPL (Pellicer et al., 1999). According to some authors, PGS does not improve the rate of pregnancy in RPL, but increases the chance of birth at term (Platteau et al., 2005).
RIF is usually defined as the failure of three or more IVF attempts with good quality embryo transfer. Some authors argue that these couples produce more embryos with aneuploidies. However, there is no evidence that PGS improves the rate of pregnancy or live IVF births.
As mentioned above, the rate of aneuploidy in spermatozoa from fertile males with a normal spermiogram is much lower than that observed in oocytes, and aneuploidy also does not increase with age in men. On the other hand, sperm aneuploidies increase with the severity of OAT. These findings put in evidence the importance of the genetic risk assessment before the ICSI procedure to predict the chance of success. Now, with the possibility of PGS/PGD and lower costs, FISH is no longer used to assess sperm.
Sperm donation is the donation by a male (known as a sperm donor) of his sperm (known as donor sperm), principally for the purpose of inseminating a female who is not his sexual partner. Sperm donation is a form of third party reproduction including sperm donation, oocyte donation, embryo donation, surrogacy, or adoption. Number of births per donor sample will depend on the actual ART method used, the age and medical condition of the female bearing the child, and the quality of the embryos produced by fertilization. Donor sperm is more commonly used for artificial insemination (IUI or ICI) than for IVF treatments. This is because IVF treatments are usually required only when there is a problem with the female conceiving, or where there is a “male factor problem” involving the female's partner. Donor sperm is also used for IVF in surrogacy arrangements where an embryo may be created in an IVF procedure using donor sperm and this is then implanted in a surrogate. In a case where IVF treatments are employed using donor sperm, surplus embryos may be donated to other women or couples and used in embryo transfer procedures.
On the other hand, insemination may also be achieved by a donor having sexual intercourse with a female for the sole purpose of initiating conception. This method is known as natural insemination.
Donor sperm and fertility treatments using donor sperm may be obtained at a sperm bank or fertility clinic. Here, the recipient may select donor sperm on the basis of the donor's characteristics, e.g. looks, personality, academic ability, race, and many other factors. Sperm banks or clinics may be subject to state or professional regulations, including restrictions on donor anonymity and the number of offspring that may be produced, and there may be other legal protections of the rights and responsibilities of both recipient and donor. Some sperm banks, either by choice or regulation, limit the amount of information available to potential recipients; a desire to obtain more information on donors is one reason why recipients may choose to use a known donor and/or private donation.
A sperm donor will usually donate sperm to a sperm bank under a contract, which typically specifies the period during which the donor will be required to produce sperm, which generally ranges from 6–24 months depending on the number of pregnancies which the sperm bank intends to produce from the donor. Donors may or may not be paid for their samples, according to local laws and agreed arrangements. Even in unpaid arrangements, expenses are often reimbursed. Depending on local law and on private arrangements, men may donate anonymously or agree to provide identifying information to their offspring in the future. Private donations facilitated by an agency often use a "directed" donor, when a male directs that his sperm is to be used by a specific person. Non-anonymous donors are also called known donors, open donors or identity disclosure donors.
A sperm donate must generally meet specific requirements regarding age (most often up to 40) and medical history. Potential donors are typically screened for genetic diseases, chromosomal abnormalities and sexually transmitted infections that may be transmitted through sperm. The donor's sperm must also withstand the freezing and thawing process necessary to store and quarantine the sperm. Samples are stored for at least 6 months after which the donor will be re-tested for sexually transmitted infections. This is to ensure no new infections have been acquired or have developed during the period of donation. If the result is negative, the sperm samples can be released from quarantine and used in treatments.
Preparing the samples
A sperm donor is usually advised not to ejaculate for two to three days before providing the sample, to increase sperm count and to maximize the conception rate. A sperm donor produces and collects sperm by masturbation or during sexual intercourse with the use of a collection condom.
Sperm banks and clinics usually "wash" the sperm sample to extract sperm from the rest of the material in the semen. A cryoprotectant semen extender is added if the sperm is to be placed in frozen storage in liquid nitrogen, and the sample is then frozen in a number of vials or straws. One sample will be divided into 1-20 vials or straws depending on the quantity of the ejaculate and whether the sample is washed or unwashed. Following the necessary quarantine period, the samples are thawed and used to inseminate women through artificial insemination or other ART treatments. Unwashed samples are used for ICI treatments, and washed samples are used in IUI and IVF procedures.
Anonymous sperm donation occurs where the child and/or receiving couple will never learn the identity of the donor, and non-anonymous when they will. Non-anonymous sperm donors are, to a substantially higher degree, driven by altruistic motives for their donations.
Even with anonymous donation, some information about the donor may be released to the female/couple at the time of treatment. Limited donor information includes height, weight, eye, skin and hair color. In Sweden, this is all the information a receiver gets. In the US, on the other hand, additional information may be given, such as a comprehensive biography and sound/video samples.
Information made available by a sperm bank will usually include the race, height, weight, blood group, health, and eye color of the donor. Sometimes information about his age, family history and educational achievements will also be given.
Different factors motivate individuals to seek sperm from outside their home state. For example, some jurisdictions do not allow unmarried women to receive donor sperm. Jurisdictional regulatory choices as well as cultural factors that discourage sperm donation have also led to international fertility tourism and sperm markets.
A sperm donor is generally not intended to be the legal or de jure father of a child produced from his sperm. Depending on the jurisdiction and its laws, he may or may not later be eligible to seek parental rights or be held responsible for parental obligations. Generally, a male who provides sperm as a sperm donor gives up all legal and other rights over the biological children produced from his sperm. However, in private arrangements, some degree of co-parenting may be agreed, although the enforceability of those agreements varies by jurisdiction.
Laws prohibits sperm donation in several countries: Algeria, Bahrain, Costa Rica, Egypt, Hong Kong, Jordan, Lebanon, Lithuania, Libya, Maldives, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkey, UnitedArab Emirates, and Yemen.See full description of Sperm donation
In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a process by which an egg is fertilised by sperm outside the body: in vitro . The process involves monitoring and stimulating a woman's ovulatory process, removing an ovum or ova (egg or eggs) from the woman's ovaries and letting sperm fertilise them in a liquid in a laboratory. The fertilised egg (zygote) is cultured for 2–6 days in a growth medium and is then implanted in the same or another woman's uterus, with the intention of establishing a successful pregnancy.
IVF techniques can be used in different types of situations. It is a technique of assisted reproductive technology for treatment of infertility. IVF techniques are also employed in gestational surrogacy, in which case the fertilised egg is implanted into a surrogate's uterus, and the resulting child is genetically unrelated to the surrogate. In some situations, donated eggs or sperms may be used. Some countries ban or otherwise regulate the availability of IVF treatment, giving raise to fertility tourism. Restrictions on availability of IVF include to single females, to lesbians and to surrogacy arrangements. Due to the costs of the procedure, IVF is mostly attempted only after less expensive options have failed.
The first successful birth of a "test tube baby", Louise Brown, occurred in 1978. Louise Brown was born as a result of natural cycle IVF where no stimulation was made. Robert G. Edwards, the physiologist who developed the treatment, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2010. With egg donation and IVF, women who are past their reproductive years or menopause can still become pregnant. Adriana Iliescu held the record as the oldest woman to give birth using IVF and donated egg, when she gave birth in 2004 at the age of 66, a record passed in 2006.
At least one contributing mechanism for reduced spermatogenesis in cryptorchid testes is temperature. The temperature of testes in the scrotum is at least a couple of degrees cooler than in the abdomen and the temperature rising may damage fertility. Some circumstantial evidence suggests tight underwear and other practices that rise testicular temperature for prolonged periods can be associated with lower sperm counts. Nevertheless, research in recent decades suggests that the issue of fertility is more complex than a simple matter of temperature. It seems likely that subtle or transient hormone deficiencies or other factors that lead to lack of descent also impair the development of spermatogenic tissue.