Anemia and infection, indicating problems with the woman's overall health at that moment, can both affect a woman's ability to become pregnant at that time as well as affect the stability of the pregnancy and health of the fetus. The most common type of anemia, caused by iron deficiency, may cause a woman to suffer from anovulation (no eggs being released during her menstrual cycle) or poor egg health, resulting in trouble conceiving. Furthermore, anemia arising from folic acid deficiency may cause secondary infertility, and even if the patient is able to conceive, she may have higher risk of miscarriage.
Similarly among men, anemia, especially coupled with malnutrition (insufficient intake of nutrients) and iron, vitamin B12 or folic acid deficiency, is and indicator of poor overall health and/or nutrition. Such conditions may be associated with lower sperm count and lower ejaculate quality, thus lowering the patient´s fertility.