Hypertension and high levels of cholesterol can injury the arteries that supply blood to the penis. Thus, damage of the penile arteries or veins can lead to erectile dysfunction which in turn seems tightly linked to vascular dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction is defined as the consistent inability to attain and maintain an erection sufficient to permit satisfactory sexual performance. Even with an erection problem, a man may still have sexual desire and be able to have an orgasm and to ejaculate.
Although infertility may be a marker of diminished fitness, which may accelerate the development of impaired health in the future, it may also occur as a consequence of current health. Men with infertility have a higher risk for a variety of other chronic medical conditions, including diabetes, heart disease, alcohol abuse, and drug abuse.
Women’s fertility is not strictly affected by atherosclerosis but it could be impaired by hypertension or high blood cholesterol, such as unexplained infertility is associated with decreased uterine and ovarian arteries blood flow during the luteal phase (second half of the cycle).