Female fertility is regulated by a series of highly coordinated and synchronized interactions in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis (alludes to the connection between the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonads). Therefore, female fertility can be affected by diseases or dysfunctions of reproductive tract, neuroendocrine system, and immune system or by any severe or exhausting general disease.
Autoimmune mechanisms as well as an increased production of multiple autoantibodies are involved in such infertility disorders as premature ovarian failure, endometriosis, polycystic ovary syndrome, unexplained infertility, and repeatedly unsuccessful IVF attempts and may be responsible for the pathophysiology of preeclampsia or spontaneous abortions.
Immunologic infertility is characterized by the presence of antibodies against sperms in the serum and/or in the seminal plasma or on the sperm surface. An autoimmune reaction in prostate can lead to the deterioration of semen quality and sperm damage.