Up until now in cross-sectional studies investigating psychological and social reasons are unclear if stress causes infertility or infertility causes stress.
Stress triggers the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (Pic. 2), which upregulates hormones that are needed to remain balanced in order for the female reproductive system to function optimally, as increased levels of these stress hormones can interfere with the timing of ovulation, shorten the luteal phase, lessen the chance of implantation, or lead to miscarriage. Stress significantly decreases the chances of conception during the fertile period.
Emotional stress would likely exert its effect on the chance of pregnancy by compromising ovarian function or implantation, because stress induced suppression in these phases of the reproductive event is physiologically less costly than disruptions at a later point in pregnancy.
It is also possible that fallopian tubes are blocked only some of the time. Such type of blockage is referred as a “functional blockage”. This scenario is typical in women who experience a lot of stress. Stress tends to constrict pelvic musculature and decrease blood flow and this can be an important factor in inability to conceive.
In the United States studies have found that infertile males experience greater sexual stress, lower satisfaction and greater erectile dysfunction. Inferior semen quality has been identified in males under stress, which is known to result in infertility or pregnancy resulting in miscarriage. According to the psychodynamic theory, women that use a sperm donor due to their partners incompetent sperm can cause significant emotional irritation.
The fleeting periods of impotence and sexual performance anxiety could possibly contribute to the reason for infertility. Studies demonstrate men who are solely to blame for infertility in partnership feel less powerful in their lives, in their ability to meet aspirations. They hold themselves personally accountable for their fertility problems, and negative sexual consequences and emotions. This highlights that because a man is stressed that he cannot impregnate his partner, decrementing his fertility.