Postoperative vaginal cuff cellulitis, pelvic cellulitis and pelvic abscesses are among the most common complications of gynecologic surgeries.
Vaginal cuff cellulitis is the infection that involves only the skin and subcutaneous tissue of the incision. The infection involving deep soft tissue (e.g. muscle) is called pelvic cellulitis. Pelvic abscess involves any part of the anatomy (e.g., organs and spaces) other than the incision. A pelvic abscess is the end stage in the progression of a genital tract infection and is frequently an unnecessary complication. The abscess may fill the pelvis and occasionally the lower abdomen, and is usually posterior (rear) to the uterus.
The association between infection and infertility has been long known. The infections that lead to asymptomatic infections are more damaging as lack of symptoms prevents a patient from seeking timely medical intervention and consequently chronic damage to pelvic organs. Chronic inflammation of the cervix and endometrium, altera‐ tions in reproductive tract secretions, induction of immune mediators that interfere with gamete or embryo physiology, and structural disorders such as intrauterine synechiae all contribute to female infertility.
Adhesions are a frequent cause of infertility and pelvic pain in women. Pelvic adhesions impair fertility by disrupting normal tubalovarian relationships.
Uterine perforation could pose a risk of uterine rupture during labor and contractions due the scar tissue in uterine wall. Typically, uterine rupture occurs suddenly and requires immediate critical emergency care for mothers, fetuses, or neonates.