When serum levels are elevated, iron is preliminarily deposited in the reticuloendothelial cells (a group of cells having the ability to take up and sequester inert particles and vital dyes); however, when their capacity is saturated, the excess iron is deposited in parenchymal cells (refers to the structural tissue of organs) of the liver, spleen, pancreas, and bone marrow. Moreover, as iron storage continues to increase, there is deposition in the skin, heart, gonads, and endocrine glands.
Hypogonadism (diminished functional activity of the gonads—the testes in males or the ovaries in females) secondary to pituitary dysfunction, is thought to be due to iron-induced cellular damage to pituitary gonadotrophs. It is one of the potential complications of hemochromatosis, usually seen in patients with a severe iron overload, and it shows an association with diabetes and cirrhosis in adult patients. Women with hypogonadism have irregular ovulation. There is lower possibility of natural conception because without ovulation, there is no egg to be fertilized.
Hypogonadism in older men is a syndrome characterized by low serum testosterone levels and clinical symptoms often seen in hypogonadal men of younger age. When plasma testosterone levels are below a minimum level, many aging men experience symptoms of low libido, changes in erectile function, and possibly changes in morning erection frequency. Low testosterone levels can lead to reduced sperm production (oligospermia), decreased libido and sexual satisfaction, and strength of erections in elderly men.