The risk of thrombosis is increased by an abnormality of blood coagulation called thrombophilia. Several reports identify inherited predisposition to thrombophilia as one of the main causes of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) in particular if several diseases potentially responsible of RPL have been already excluded such as endocrine diseases (such as ovarian dysfunction, anovulation, hypopituitarism and diabetes), uterine malformation, genetic alterations (for example, chromosomal aberrations), inflammatory diseases (in particular systemic lupus erythematosus) and infectious diseases. Recurrent pregnancy loss represents a major health problem with two to three or more losses in up to 5% of women of reproductive age and is actually one of the most common causes of female sterility.
From a pathological point of view, women affected by thrombophilia show during their pregnancy a hypercoagulable state that is already increased during pregnancy, which may impair placental flow and then its function and fetal growth and may predispose to develop venous thrombosis.
During pregnancy, in fact, many changes in the haemostatic (process which causes bleeding to stop) balance are observer with a trend toward thrombophilia in order to be prompt for the haemostatic challenge of delivery. Thus, pregnancy is a condition associated to thrombophilia per se.
Moreover, women carrying further thrombotic risk factors such as inherited thrombophilia show an additionally increased risk of thrombotic events during pregnancy such as venous thromboembolism and/or abortion.
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) and pulmonary embolism (PE), in fact, continue to be a leading cause of maternal death during pregnancy or postpartum and may cause significant morbidity of pregnant women.