With hypothyroidism, low levels of thyroid hormone can interfere with the release of an egg from ovary (ovulation), which impairs fertility. Irregular menstrual cycles, amenorrhea (absence of period) or hypermenorrhea (abnormally heavy or prolonged menstruation) could be also associated with hypothyroidism. Women undergoing total thyroidectomy and women with hypothyroidism due to other reasons are also at increased risk for adverse obstetric outcomes, while the risk is higher for pregnancies with total thyroidectomy as compared to hypothyroidism due to other reasons.
Hypothyroidism after thyroid surgery adversely affects erectile function and sperm parameters, including sperm count, morphology, and motility. Once hypothyroidism is diagnosed in a man with fertility problems, bringing thyroid hormones levels back into the normal range usually restores normal erectile and ejaculatory function.