Less than 5% of the infertile couples have a physical cause for infertility, and this number is being reduced as medical knowledge evolved. The relationship between psychic states and physiological functions is highly complex, and there is not a simple and linear causal relation. It is also important to consider the conflicts present in couples that conceive naturally, since maybe similar conflicts can be found. People must be careful in order to avoid confounding causality with facts that can simply be related.
Sexual child abuse can lead to three main types of outcomes: physical, psychological/psychiatric sequences and the risk of revictimization (when a survivor of sexual abuse is sexually victimized again). It can cause gynaecological consequences such as chronic pelvic pain, dyspareunia (painful sexual intercourse) at the beginning of sexual activity, vaginismus and non-specific vaginitis and can cause inappropriate sexualized behaviour, such as repeated object insertion into vagina and/or anus, age-inappropriate knowledge of sex.
Finally, vaginismus refers to sexual pain disorders that create pain and involuntary spasms, respectively, in women, and thus make it painful to have sex and to conceive naturally.
New reproduction technologies are transforming the concepts of infertility, mainly with regards to the knowledge about psychogenic infertility.