Self therapy does not exist.
Conventional medicine does not exist.
During ICSI just one sperm is injected directly into the egg cytoplasm using a micromanipulative apparatus that transforms imperfect hand movements into fine and precise movements of micromanipulation tools.
Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) is an assisted reproductive technique (ART) initially developed by Dr. Gianpiero D. Palermo in 1993 to treat male infertility. It is most commonly used in conjunction with in vitro fertilization (IVF). Following IVF procedure, the physician places the fertilized egg into the female’s uterus for implantation. Sperm are obtained by the same methods as with IVF: either through masturbation, by using a collection condom, or by surgically removing sperm from a testicle through a small incision (MESA, TESE). The females are treated with fertility medications for approximately two weeks prior to oocyte retrieval to stimulate superovulation, where the ovaries produce multiple oocytes rather than the normal one oocyte. The oocytes are retrieved by either laparoscopy, or more commonly, transvaginal oocyte retrieval. In the latter procedure, the physician inserts a thin needle through the cervix, guided by a sonogram and pierces the vaginal wall and then the ovaries to extract several mature ova. Before the embryologist can inject the sperm into the oocyte, the sperm must be prepared by washing and exposing it to various chemicals to slow the sperm movement and prevent it from sticking to the injection plate. Also, the oocytes are treated with hyaluronidase to single out the oocyte ready for fertilization by the presence of the first polar body. Then, one prepared sperm is injected into an oocyte with a thin needle. Often, embryologists try to fertilize several eggs so they can implant more than one into the uterus and increase the chance of at least one successful pregnancy. This also allows them to save extra embryos, using cryopreservation, in case later IVF rounds are needed.
After the embryologist manually fertilizes the oocytes, they are incubated for sixteen to eighteen hours and develop into a pronucleate eggs (successfully fertilized eggs about to divide into an embryo). The egg then grows for one to five days in the laboratory before the physician places it in the female’s uterus for implantation.
The chance of fertilization increases dramatically with ICSI compared to simply mixing the oocytes and sperm in a Petri dish and waiting for fertilization to occur unaided (classical IVF procedure). Studies have shown that successful fertilizations occur 50% to 80% of the time. Since the introduction of ICSI, intrauterine insemination (IUI) has decreased in popularity by 80%.See full description of ICSI
Testicular sperm extraction (TESE) is the process of removing a small portion of tissue from the testicle under local anesthesia and extracting the few viable sperm cells present in that tissue for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).
The testicular sperm extraction process is recommended to men who cannot produce sperm by ejaculation due to azoospermia, such as that caused by primary testicular failure, congenital absence of the vas deferens or non-reconstructed vasectomy.
The introduction of the technique of intracytoplasmic sperm injection to achieve fertilization, especially using surgically retrieved testicular or epididymal sperm from men with obstructive or non-obstructive azoospermia, has revolutionized the field of assisted reproduction. Testicular sperm retrieval techniques associated with intracytoplasmic sperm injection have reduced the need for donor sperm and given many azoospermic men the chance to become biological fathers.
The extraction of the testicular parenchyma for sperm search and isolation was first described in 1995. For conventional TESE, a standard open surgical biopsy technique is used to remove the testicular parenchyma without the aid of optical magnification. This procedure is usually carried out without delivering the testis. Briefly, a 2-cm transverse incision is made through the anterior scrotal skin, dartos and tunica vaginalis. A small self-retaining retractor can be used to ensure proper exposure of the tunica albuginea. A 1-cm incision is made in the albuginea, and gentle pressure is applied to the testis to aid the extrusion of the testicular parenchyma. A fragment of approximately 5x5 mm is excised with sharp scissors and placed in sperm culture media. Single or multiple specimens can be extracted from the same incision. Alternatively, individual albuginea incisions can be made in the upper, middle and lower testicular poles in an organized manner for the sampling of different areas. The testicular specimens are sent to the laboratory for processing and immediate microscopic examination. The tunica albuginea is closed with a running, non-absorbable suture.
See full description of TESE
The technical procedure for PESA involves the insertion of a needle attached to a syringe through the scrotal skin into the epididymis (Pic 1). Originally, the use of a larger butterfly needle was described. Currently, most experts use a fine needle (26 gauge) attached to a tuberculin syringe containing sperm washing medium. After creating negative pressure by pulling the syringe plunger, the tip of the needle is gently and slowly moved in and out inside the epididymis until fluid is aspirated. If motile sperm are not obtained, PESA may be repeated at a different site (from the cauda to caput epididymis) until an adequate number of motile sperm is retrieved. These aspirations are usually performed in the corpus epididymis and then in the caput epididymis if needed, as aspirates from the cauda are often rich in poor-quality senescent spermatozoa, debris and macrophages. Because PESA is a blind procedure, multiple attempts may be needed before high-quality sperm are found. If PESA fails to enable the retrieval of motile sperm, testicular sperm retrieval can be attempted during the same operation.
Craft and Shrivastav, in 1994, first described the use of the percutaneous approach to retrieve sperm from the epididymis. Percutaneous retrievals are usually undertaken under local anesthesia only or in association with intravenous sedation. Percutaneous sperm retrieval can be either diagnostic or therapeutic. In the former, it is used to confirm the presence of viable spermatozoa prior to ICSI. In the latter, it is carried out at the same day of oocyte retrieval or at the day before.
The concept of micro-TESE is to identify areas of sperm production within the testes with the aid of optical magnification (15-25x) and based on the size and appearance of the seminiferous tubules. Micro-TESE is recommended for the most severe cases of non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA).
MicroTESE yields the highest sperm retrieval rate and causes the least amount of damage to the testis.
Miniinvasive alternative to TESE using microdissection microscope. In microsurgical testicular sperm extraction (microdissection TESE; micro-TESE), the testicular parenchyma is dissected under magnification to search for enlarged seminiferous tubules, which are more likely to contain germ cells and foci of sperm production compared to non-enlarged or collapsed tubules. Such seminiferous tubules are removed rather than proceeding with the large single or multiple biopsies performed in conventional TESE.
For micro-TESE, the scrotal skin is stretched over the anterior surface of the testis, after which a 2 3 cm transverse incision is made. Alternatively, a single midline scrotal incision can be used. The incision extends through the dartos muscle and the tunica vaginalis. The tunica is opened, and identifiable bleeders are cauterized. The testis is delivered extravaginally, and the tunica albuginea is examined. Then, a single, large, mid-portion incision is made in an avascular area of the tunica albuginea under 6-8× magnification, and the testicular parenchyma is widely exposed in its equatorial plane (Pic. 1). The testicular parenchyma is dissected at 16-25× magnification to enable the search and isolation of seminiferous tubules that exhibit larger diameters (which are more likely to contain germ cells and eventually normal sperm production) in comparison to non-enlarged or collapsed counterparts (Pic. 2). If needed, the superficial and deep testicular regions can be examined, and microsurgical-guided testicular biopsies are performed by carefully removing enlarged tubules using microsurgical forceps. If enlarged tubules are not observed, any tubule that differs from the remaining tubules in size is excised. The excised testicular tissue specimens are placed into the inner well of a Petri dish containing sperm media, and are sent to the laboratory for processing and sperm search (Pic. 3). The tunicas albuginea and vaginalis are then closed in a running fashion using non-absorbable and absorbable sutures. The dartos muscle is closed with interrupted absorbable sutures, respectively. Immediately prior to complete closure, 3 cc of 1% xylocaine solution may be injected into the subcuticular layers. The skin is closed using a continuous subcuticular 4-0 vicryl suture. A fluffy-type scrotal dressing and scrotal supporter are placed.See full description of Micro TESE
Vasectomy is a procedure, which is used to prevent sperms to enter the ejaculate by cutting the tubes that allow sperms to leave the testicles. After the procedure, there are no sperms, which can be delivered to female genital tract, so the conception is not possible.
It is advised that all men having a vasectomy consider freezing some sperm before the procedure.
The cost of cryopreservation (sperm banking) itself may also be substantially less (approximately every five years) than alternative vaso-vasectomy procedure(s).
Vasectomy reversal is a term used for surgical procedures that reconnect the male reproductive tract after interruption by a vasectomy. Two procedures are possible at the time of vasectomy reversal: vasovasostomy (vas deferens to vas deferens connection) and vasoepididymostomy (epididymis to vas deferens connection). The procedures remain technically demanding and expensive, and may not restore the pre-vasectomy condition.